Education

Recognition and Treatment of Infectious Skin Diseases

Skin infections occur due to infiltration of bacteria into the skin, sometimes extending into the underlying tissues. Cellulites, is a common manifestation, presents with symptoms such as redness, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area.

In contrast skin abscess forms when pus collects beneath the skin, often causing localized pain and inflammation. These infections can result from various factors, including injuries, compromised immune function, or underlying medical conditions.

Skin infections can be classified into several categories based on various factors such as their cause, the clinical presentation, and the affected layers of the skin.

  1. Causative Organism
  • Bacterial Skin Infections
  • Staphylococcal infections include impetigo, cellulitis, folliculitis, and furuncles or carbuncles.
  • Streptococcal infections include erysipelas and cellulitis.
  • Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections can cause various skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses.
  1. Viral skin Infections
  • Herpes simplex virus infections includes cold sores and genital herpes.
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections include varicella and shingles.
  • Human papillomavirus infection includes warts and verrucae.
  1. Fungal skin infections
  • Tinea infections include tinea corporis, athlete’s foot (tinea pedis), and the jock itch (tinea cruris).
  • Candidiasis is a yeast infection caused by candida species, which can affect skin folds, nails, and mucous membranes.
  1. Parasitic Skin Infection
  • Scabies caused by the sarcoptes scabiei mite.
  • Pediculosis is an infestation with lice, include pediculosis capitis, pediculosis corporis and pediculosis pubis.
  1. Clinical Presentation
  • Superficial skin infections limited to epidermis or superficial dermis, present with symptoms such as redness, swelling, and often pustules.
  • Deep skin infections involve deeper layers of the skin and may lead to abscess formation, cellulitis, or necrotizing fasciitis.
  1. Skin layers of the skin
  • Epidermal infections affecting the outermost layer of the skin which are characterized by redness, itching and scaling.
  • Dermal infections affecting the deeper layer of the skin, typically presenting with symptoms such as warmth, tenderness, and swelling.

What is the best topical treatment for severe skin infection?

Topical treatment can be classified into several categories based on underlying cause of the condition and the therapeutic approach. Corticosteroids used to reduce inflammation, itching and redness which is associated with the conditions like eczema, psoriasis, and allergic reactions. These are the main topical medications which can mixed with antifungals to help reduce the redness and itching. There are other topical medications i.e. topical sulfacetamide, clindamycin, or erythromycin which is used for rosacea and mupirocin, retapamulin, ozenoxacin used to treat for impetigo (a staphylococcal infection of the skin).

What are the different procedural treatments for skin infections?

There are advanced treatments for skin infections which helps to cure different categories of infection i.e.

  • Phototherapy: It is a light-based therapy uses ultraviolet light to treat conditions like psoriasis, eczema, and vitiligo.
  • Laser Therapy: It is used for conditions including acne scars, vascular lesions, pigmented lesions, or hair removal. During laser therapy, a low-level laser, usually red, is applied to the lesion. The laser transmits photons about three inched into the skin, mitochondria in the skin membranes absorb the red laser light, which cause an increase in adenosine triphosphate levels leading to production of healthy cells.
  • Surgical Excision: Removal of skin lesions or layers or tumors for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

What are the primary causes of infection skin diseases?

Skin infection frequently caused by staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus pyogenes, and coryneform bacteria. Impetigo, boils, folliculitis are the common example of skin infections.

What is the most common diagnosis for skin infection?

Diagnosing of skin lesion start with physical examination and review of the patient’s history. Dermatologist assesses various characteristics of the lesion which includes colour, size, shape, depth, and location. In some cases, dermascopy involves examination of lesion under magnification, can provide additional insights into its features and structure. For other diagnostic tests may be dependent on the nature of the lesion which includes:

  • Blood tests to assess underlying infections.
  • Allergy tests to identify potential triggers or allergens associated with certain skin reactions.
  • Microbiological investigations, to identify causative organism in cases of infection.
  • Imaging techniques like X-rays or CT-scans to evaluate deeper lesions or assess for the involvement of bones.

Online course available for dermatology education?

There are different online courses tailored to various aspects of Dermatology MD, one of best dermatology e-lecture series available online by Dr. Rashmi Sarkar and Dr. S. Sacchidanand. With the help of online resources, crafted by leading experts in the field, students can stay informed about advancement in treatment of skin infections and therapeutic techniques. For beginners’ online courses are suitable for basic understanding of dermatology concepts, helps in understanding the complex concepts and improve clinical decision-making skills.

What are key topics covered in dermatology MD online e-lecture series?

These dermatology online e-lecture series cover a wide range of topics which include:

  • Dermatologic Conditions: Eczema, psoriasis, acne, skin cancer
  • Advanced Procedural Techniques: Cryotherapy, suturing, laser therapy, dermabrasion
  • Cosmetic Dermatology: Botox, chemical peels, and laser treatments.

With online video lectures students will enhance their understanding through visual demonstrations of procedures, clinical cases, and expert discussions, which provide valuable insight into dermatology clinical practice. Online video lectures provide flexibility, allowing students to review content at their own pace and reinforce learning objectives.

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